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poverty A SUBJECT



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POVERTY A SUBJECT

Nearly 60% poor live in our human world. This growth of poverty level is =
largely due to misunderstanding poverty. Measures controlling poverty =
should be linked to the suitability of the country, as reasons of =
poverty changes due to social conditions of the country. For example, =
countries like India and other who has thick population and dominated by =
illiterates and semi- littermates (semi-literate means with less =
literacy level which deprives them from employment in high tech or =
medium industries). This category does not fit into high tech =
industries. For them agricultural, small and cottage industries are most =
suitable.

 =
http://members.tripod.com/~sadashivan_nair/quotpovertyquotasubject/index.=
html "Poverty" A SUBJECT that is enjoyed by poets/ writers and =
politicians. Is curse for who experience, and boon as a subject for =
politicians to promise for vote! And subject of appreciation by public =
to writers and poets! Many books have been written and many promises =
made, nevertheless, poverty level has dominated the world. Governments =
and International Organizations who study and spend exorbitant amount in =
their research on poverty and things end up in racks with full of files =
and books on poverty.

 I perceive poverty in two categories:                         =20

(1)   Poorest of poor who starve even for one time food, give thanks to =
God if succeed getting. Nearly 30% of the world population comes from =
this category. Unbelievable, countries those over produce and =
contemplate to dump into sea due to lack of storage facility when their =
one fourth of population starve of food grain. This is shocking but =
true. This stage is accounted due to lack of buying power.

(2)   Who lack basic needs like hygienic food, electricity, drinking =
water, proper shelters, education, social security & medical facility, =
suitable employment and etc.,

Many problems in social structure when accumulated, poverty is borne. =
That may be unemployment, over population, education, government =
performance, and relation with neighboring country, which I understand =
with little knowledge, what I have:

 EMPLOYMENT: Unemployment level is nearly 40-45% in poor countries among =
which rural village illiterates/ semi-literate contributes major =
percentage. Employment is major source to eradicate or minimize poverty =
as this gives buying power to population and increases their per capita =
income results to help increasing direct and indirect taxes to =
Government for development program. To any development programs finance =
is required, that finance should come from taxes and savings, if opted =
to loan from International Monetary Fund or World Bank will only =
aggravate problems and will push further to poverty. Many poor and =
developing nations are in debt due to the money lending programs by =
international financial institutions.=20

Emphasis to be given to natural and traditional sources such as tourism, =
agricultural and related cottage industries, arts and crafts for =
generating employment, this can consume high unemployment among =
illiterates and semi-literate. Populations live in rural villages with =
their traditional art value still they are poor and hand to mouth. =
Unable to use they're traditional skill due to non-exploring and =
insufficient measures by local governments for its marketing. . Most =
affected area of poverty is rural population as agriculture is their =
main source of income. Mainly depend on the small land and god for rain. =
Work for 4-5 months and balance of the year they remain unemployed =
looking up for rain. This blank period need to be utilized by engaging =
them to their traditional arts and crafts or agricultural products.

http://members.tripod.com/~sadashivan_nair/crisisofunemploymentinhandloom=
andcottagesectors/index.html

Following I suggest as steps to improve cottage and small sector =
products make more attractive:

 1.      Attract designers and private sectors to bring best knowledge =
and invest to improve demand in local market as well as overseas.

2.      Promotions and marketing to be strengthened by Facility of fair =
/ exhibitions/ advertisements in professional way.

3.      Fixing minimum norms of quality standard. And gradation of =
products according to its quality, a- grade products for exports and =
high local market, grade- b also export and medium range markets, c- =
grade in local market and d- grade in off sales and cheap market. So =
that, products can be allocated according to the buying capacity of =
consumers.=20

4.      Minimum 15-20 % fixed as quota each stores/ shop with better =
profits to keep for sales, this will sure be healthy to promote sales. =
Thus, each store is attracted to put such products in its stores.

5.      Arranging best quality of raw materials should be the priority =
and make available at best possible price to make the products =
competitive.

6.      To avoid shortage if possible also imports the raw material. =
Mediators should be avoided to cut down cost.

7.      In participation with international standard institutes to open =
up advanced institutions for improving products/ designs of =
international standard, will be boost to the exports and local =
marketing.

8.      Tax rebate to the promoters/ manufactures will be incentive to =
its promotions.

9.      World Trade Organization and its free trade missionary should =
understand the importance to boost this sector. Free market and trade =
will further aggravate poverty level in countries, which have dense =
population with high level of illiteracy. It I see as unfair and one-way =
and results unequal free trade. Small scale industries are washed away =
by intrusion of multinational products or to meet competition with them =
opt to unfair practices or hiring child labor, or reducing work force, =
cheating workers on overtime pay, imposing merciless and unsafe working =
conditions to bring down their costs nevertheless is far away and are =
lost to imported goods. Free import or exports is beneficial to only =
countries, which have good stand on exports to make good balance of =
payment and receipt. Lot of poverty we see around the world is related =
to the way of global markets and trading practices. For promoting =
products WTO need to reconsider its strategy of free market, present =
system will only help developed countries to dump over production to =
poor countries and results collapse of economy. It need to come forward =
to help generate employment:

=B7         Special tax may be introduced and levied from all resources =
involved in exports. Levy of the tax should be on basis of consumption =
of workers for producing items, lesser the workers higher the tax.

=B7         The cottage and agricultural industries (non auto plant) =
should be spared from the tax. This also helps to curtail high =
international competition due to auto machine products.

=B7         To encourage Agricultural and cottage industries WTO should =
work out the measures by fixing at least minimum quota of these items =
that to be imported. Which should be binding to all importing countries. =
This way it promotes these sectors and saves its employees

=B7         Levied tax should be allocated and contributed to =
Appropriate Governments to generate employment, uplift standard of =
living and social security to workers of unorganized sector.=20

It is generally misunderstood that by inviting investments on heavy and =
high tech industries will solve the employment problem. This is =
beneficial to only few thousands rich international rich companies, =
enjoy their investment and returns which further benefits to rich =
countries and few urban literate population who get employment or change =
for betterment whereas nearly 70% of population of poor countries live =
in villages are illiterate or semi-literates having major percentage of =
unemployment. This rich category invests in poor countries to get =
products made at cheaper labour cost and sell at high price.

Rather this section requires more attention for generation of employment =
as due to dominant category in population of the country are directly =
related to poverty and programs. For example, industrial development =
should be framed in such a pattern that rural illiterates grow fruits =
(labour intensive) and modern machines (capital intensive) governed by =
literate class process fruits and sell in the market. This way both =
categories are benefited. This process should follow until the literacy =
level is achieved.

LABOUR MARKET: Developed and rich countries should open international =
labour market free for unskilled and semi skilled workforce from poor =
countries. Study reveals that more and more industrialization and =
literacy people opt to go for white and blue color jobs, mainly in rich =
and developed countries there is still enormous demand of such workers =
like carpenters, laborers, painters, plumbers, mechanics, helpers, =
cleaners and other low skilled workers. Local population of rich and =
developed countries pay hefty amount to get overflowing tap repaired of =
a kitchen even then you call and take time. This reveals the gap between =
demand and supply, can be pruned by employing from poor nations will =
also definitely consume some percentage of unskilled and semi-skilled =
workers lying unemployed in poor countries. Salary received by them is =
highly useful to balancing trade deficit and will have chances to launch =
capital-intensive projects or social security.=20

POPULATION: Second biggest curse to poor countries is uncontrolled =
growth of population resulting poverty. "One loaf of bread and six =
people to eat". Over 70% of 6.2 billion-world populations, live in poor =
countries alone. Unprecedented growth of human population, and in =
particular the steep increase of human numbers in the world's poor =
countries results to malnourished and dying children, slum growth, =
disease, illiteracy, and social and political crisis, develops scarcity =
of all basic requirements. Concern of overpopulation and its impact on =
environment by deforestation and desertification, pollution in air and =
water a threat to world ecology. Shortage adds up crisis of mass =
infiltration and deportation resulting civil unrest and neighbor =
disputes. Literate societies in poor countries mostly opt for one or two =
children but illiterates and semi-literates have religious feelings that =
children are god gift and obstacles not acceptable to them.=20

Family planning program failure has become joke to youth for naughty =
joke entertainment. Has failed to serve its purpose due to inefficient =
implementation or communication in poor countries. Condoms have become =
balloons for children to play. Still rural people feel shy when talked =
about sex and population control this prevents them to adopt methods. =
Especially rural women, illiteracy is so intense in them that they don't =
even like to see doctors explaining them about family planning. For some =
women who are educated and want to adopt family planning they have other =
problem from boss (husband) and boss's boss (mother in law) for using =
contraceptives. Sex education should be developed in a pattern that =
family planning becomes boon for them instead of sin. Fear among rural =
women of side effects of using contraceptives partly fails purpose =
Illiterates of rural villages want their house full of flowers =
(children) Poor families have feeling that more the children they have =
better the income they get, this social evil results by inefficient =
education system. Governments should boldly make decisions to control =
excessive growth of population even if they have to take harsh =
decisions. This can be achieved by announcing incentives and =
disincentives:=20

=B7        Education of fewer children to citizens is soft method of =
controlling but is useful to only literate class who are already adapted =
to fewer children. Semi-literates with partial success. Illiterates and =
have their reasons - religion is one of the big factors that illiterates =
misunderstand. Religious leaders are very helpful; taking religious =
leaders into confidence would definitely give partial success. Second =
reason what illiterates perceive is that more the children more the =
income this perception is definitely wrong and dangerous. For this some =
harsh steps to be taken.

=B7        Announcing incentives and disincentive to have limited =
children will be high success to control excessive growth of population. =


A-    Entitlement of subsidized food articles and services small =
families. It looks difficult in democratic countries, subsidy to be =
allocated by grading small family and big family would help.

B-    Entitlement and non-entitlement to government positions and =
promotions. Most neglected area in poor countries as even today the =
ministers and high officials have excessive children this should be =
discouraged at all if Governments are sincere to encourage family =
planning.

C-    Entitlement of special preference for small family of poor =
category to upgrade standard of living by way of loan and education of =
small scale industry to set up.

  a.. Accountability of Central and state heads: Each central/ state/ =
district and local area head should be made responsible and accountable =
in his or her legislative area. This would be a grate step. Conscious of =
responsibility would definitely control population. Also these heads =
would be helpful to upgrade their areas.=20
EDUCATION: Nearly 50% of population of poor countries is uneducated. =
Awareness' of education is still lacking in some rural areas where =
poverty level is high. Many families don't afford to send their children =
to schools rather they prefer sending children to work for want of money =
or to clear debt obligations. For them even if school education is made =
free will not solve purpose due to poverty. Also social evil like bonded =
labour and debt payment forces them to think only work. These areas =
should be given special attention and facilities of study and earn. =
Children of poor should be avoided to go to work.

http://members.tripod.com/~sadashivan_nair/childlabourandsociety/index.ht=
ml

=B7        Governments taking help of international organizations and =
NGO's is purposeful to identify areas where the bonded and slavery =
exists most. Work on to penalize who forces poor to work on these terms. =
Insurance and finance sectors should be encouraged to promote their =
schemes in rural villages.

=B7        In areas where less interest is shown poor parents are unable =
to send children for education due to survival problem Government and =
NOG'S to introduce study and earn. Items may be identified from those =
areas, which are suitable to young child. It would be rather educational =
apprenticeship in playing way with basic education. It is not crime but =
support to a needy child and better understanding of crisis of child =
labour.

=B7        Or to identify the poor parents, who don't send their =
children to work due to financial crisis, support by donation to educate =
their children. It is little tricky as some parents may take money and =
don't send child to school. In such cases donations to be based on =
school attendance. Come to school and earn

=B7        Some of interior rural villages have primary education =
schools far- far away and are hard to reach. Urban high schools and =
college students can be of grate help. Not only the rural children are =
educated but it also provides opportunity to urban students for social =
involvement with rural population. To my opinion it should be made =
mandatory as higher education becomes purposeful which updates the =
plights and brings ideas of solutions. This would be a right step to =
involve them in socio economic.=20

=B7        Constructive education system is still lacking in many =
countries especially poor and developing countries. Our high schools, =
collage and higher education students at present are indulged mainly in =
theories and books written many years back. Without social involvement =
in the field selected, study is purposeless. Social involvement is =
research and highlight of problem is solution. As the time changes the =
needs also change, study should be in accordance. Many areas are still =
untouched considering as less important or unknown. I give a small =
example of sports, is treated as wastage of time in poor countries on =
the other hand this area is now one of the most paying. Children study =
zoology in schools but zoos in many parts are in pathetic condition, =
student's apparent involvement will certainly be highly beneficial. =
Similarly many areas are unknown if opened will definitely open fields =
of employment. Systemized education according to modern and future needs =
will definitely give birth to scientists, explorers and inventors to =
poor countries. As students are directly in touch with the practical =
world along with their theories they will be able to learn better of =
problems and find ways to solutions. Students should be encouraged to =
make study reports that need to be discussed, examined. Government's =
success is when identified the problem and that opens way to solve.

=B7         Roll of a school is to develop raw child to perfect. But =
present system implication in poor and developing countries is that =
perfect (high marks) child is given opportunity to get enrolled to good =
schools or collages and if the child is less than the expectations is =
asked to seek T.C (I call removal certificate). Purpose of schools is =
irrelevant if child's taste is not developed or child is not made to fit =
the world. It is schools, which are responsible for child's growth. As a =
result of education societies inefficient policies students are duped. =
After ranking highest in schools and collages, child's expectation to =
have better opportunities in real life is failed, as what studied is =
different from new apparent life. This is where children feel deprived =
and one of the causes of unemployment among literates.=20

Education and need of education be better studied as is the instrument =
of the countries growth. =20

RELATION AMOUNG NEIGHBOURING COUNTRIES: Most poor countries have =
problems with their neighbors and are the largest buyers of weapons. Bad =
relation increases unnecessary buying of weapons. Nearly 20-30% of total =
budget is allocated to military, weapons and Maintenance of borders. =
Again dependability on developed countries that sell products with =
monopoly at high price tags as are patented and gives no right to =
produce. Buying weapons mounts further tensions and to maintain parallel =
strength more budgets allocated to military by pruning social expenses. =
Weapon seller countries should be taxed highly by international bodies =
to discourage their sales tactics; taxed amount may come as boon to =
social reform internationally.

Many items produced in neighboring countries that can easily be accessed =
at better and cheaper price but due to bad relation this becomes =
impossible. Good relation among neighbors will solve many problems even =
if any dispute exists that is easily solved.

1.      Exchange of dialogues periodically rather quite often between =
neighbors will communicate opinions, problems and way to solution is =
definitely helping hand to improve relations. Emphasis given on =
bipartite and not tripartite.

2.      Offer of help and support in crisis of neighbor will bring =
relation in harmony.=20

3.      Declaring neighboring country as favored nation and opening door =
expedites trade relation thus dependability on each other, reduces =
possibility of misunderstanding.=20

4.      Inter- dependability smoothens relation. This relation is like =
wife and husband. After whole day fight and silence, they need to depend =
one bed and most disputes are solved when they are in bed and again two =
lips together.

5.      Exchange and cooperation in Social and cultural activity =
improves understanding population of both nations.

GOVERNMENT EXPENSES: Expenses incurred by Governments in unproductive =
areas may be enough to bring water from flooded states to states, which =
suffering from draught. This transferring water of flooded states =
through pipes, artificial rivers or canals may want less money than =
present unproductive office expenses and maintenance of loss making =
public sectors. Governments overstaffing due to political pressure =
results only confusion and fails the objectives to serve public. Most of =
the Government employees feel highly secured till retirement lack of =
competition brings inefficiency.=20

  a.. Fear of fire (termination) is the step will maintain discipline to =
get good result. Accountability will expedite the routine work.=20
  b.. Promotion and demotion would help further to achieve the best =
results.=20
  c.. Most of the development programs lye on the tables pending due to =
non-movement of files timely, adds up cost on development programs, as =
the rates of today may not be the same after 3 years.=20
  d.. In order to extract best work need to identify areas over staffed =
to utilize in short staffed.=20
  e.. Seeking help of contractors for clerical and other blue color =
staff is beneficial in non-confidential areas of banking, insurance =
other identified fields. For seniority selection on the basis of =
performance and ability.=20
  f.. Governments should concentrate in development and policy programs =
instead of running industries and indulging in production and service =
sectors. Should be given open to citizens to invest money and allow =
competition to give consumers the satisfaction. Unwanted increase number =
of public employees is just the root to corruption.=20
  g.. In the same time control of Industrial policy and maintenance of =
legislation need to consumer and public oriented to avoid undue =
practices by industries.=20
  h.. Employ minimum and pay more will yield government workers =
satisfaction, which will be, root to productive results. =20
Unorganized sectors have contributed largely to promote poverty level. =
Nearly 70% of the total working population in poor and developing are =
from unorganized sectors; they are without any social security and =
pension schemes. This is the large area, which has escaped attentions of =
many Governments of poor and developing countries. Most disappointing is =
that such a large percentage of workers are yet to have social security =
and their old age secured.=20

I give a small example as if a person from informal sector meets an =
accident/ gets ill for long time/ remains unemployed/old age when unable =
to work etc. Under these circumstances person has no alternate for =
food/shelter. This is all due to lack of involving this informal sector =
to the mainstream of UNO or ILO.  Old aged people percentage is growing =
every day. This issue has to be treated human rights issue.=20

http://members.tripod.com/~sadashivan_nair/unorganisedsectorandlackofsoci=
alsecurity/

 Insecurity is fear and fear is poverty.=20

RELIGION: Religion has important role in social development and reforms, =
as its impact on public is intense. Can play important role to eradicate =
poverty by its influence on people. Religious leaders have =
responsibility towards society who trust and have faith on them. I don't =
want to go deep in religious matters but I wish to acknowledge, religion =
is for discipline but inter-religious and religion-to-religion fight has =
spread so much that living is getting disturbed. Realization of writings =
in holy books will be purposeful to all of us will lead to growth of =
humanity. It is place where society is attracted most. This strength of =
religious place needs to be used for reformation. Each religion has =
described helping poor. If followed properly will address real =
objective. Fanatic attitudes should modify according to modern needs. =
Following the same old time, which was then required for the society, =
may not be viable in present life as change in circumstances, living =
life, atmosphere. Rightly use of religious strength will teach society =
of tolerance and peace. If poverty and reform is given priority by =
religions, will expedite poverty reform and faith is intensified.

  a.. Governments should take initiatives to evolve religious leaders =
will bring awareness of social structure and crisis among them.=20
  b.. Donation collected in spiritual account to use in rightful purpose =
is poverty eradication and social reforms.=20
  c.. Direct touch with public, religious leaders will identify areas of =
poverty, causes of poverty and for its reform.=20
  d.. Religion can educate people, which will ultimately make people =
realize responsibility towards society.=20
Widening gap between poor and rich need to be arrested. Whole world =
should be open to identify the causes of poverty and step forward to =
reformations. Nearly 20% of world population in the developed nations, =
consume 80% of world goods. Gross Domestic product of poorest 48 =
countries is less than the three richest people combined. Gap is =
unjustified. Richness should not only mean accumulation of capital and =
assets in limited places all good should be distributed be for good =
humanity.=20

Best regards

Sadashivan

R-BLOCK/ 18-C

DILSHAD GARDEN

DELHI-110095

globalservices@vsnl.com



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