[Date Prev][Date Next][Thread Prev][Thread Next][Date Index][Thread Index]

Resending People First Text



---------------------------------------------------------------------
[Topics under debate]: GOOD GOVERNANCE
___Help make this manifesto better, or accept it, and propagate it!___
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Hi

Here's a HTML version attachment of the People First Manifesto.
These are only part of the document, which actually runs into 60 pages
in more detail.

Bhuwan had wanted the URL of People First. I remember the People First
address being on the homepage earlier. But I notice that it's been
removed. Can anyone state why ? And who decided this ?

Regards,

Rajeev




_________________________________________________________
Do You Yahoo!?
Get your free @yahoo.com address at http://mail.yahoo.com

--0-1804289383-927859879=:7214
Content-Type: text/html; name="People First1.htm"
Content-Description: People First1.htm
Content-Disposition: inline; filename="People First1.htm"

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 3.2//EN">
<!-- This HTML document was generated by PageMaker -->
<!-- On Fri May 28 07:24:47 1999 from "F:\IndiaPolicy\People
First\People First.p65" -->
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE>Untitled1</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY BGCOLOR="#ffffff">

<!-- Generation of PM publication page 1 -->


<!-- Generation of PM publication page 2 -->

<TABLE BORDER=0 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=0 LANG=en DIR=LTR WIDTH="841"
COLS="3">
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=226>
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=548>
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=66>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=63>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1>
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=475 WIDTH=548 VALIGN="TOP">
<H2>
People's Declaration
</H2>
<P>
<P>We the people of India dcmand that all political parties commit that
within 100 days of coming to power, they
shall promulgate planning laws in conformity with Article 243ZD of the
Constitution of India. These laws will ensure that
all planning and development activity involves the genuine participation
of the people and will, among other things,
provide that:
<P>
<P>1  Centralized planning and central and state sponsored or assisted
schemes on local matters shall be abolished.
<P>
<P>2  All financial resources and/or taxation powers for local
programmes shall be devolved to local governments
without any strings attached.
<P>
<P>3  All planning in relation to such devolved resources shall be
initiated by local governments, consolidated by
district planning committees and then processed at higher levels of
government and fine-tuned iteratively.
<P>
<P>4  No project exceeding 1000 sqm in area or three floors in height
shall be approved without public hearings
being organized at the affected sites, neighbourhoods and villages or
without appropriate public consultations.
<P>
<P>5  Appropriate participatory councils on critical issues like natural
resource management, empowerment of women
and public tenders shall be constituted as conscience-keepers of
development.
<P>
<P>6  Grassroots democracy in which decisions arc taken in the presence
of all the constituents shall be instituted in
the form of neighbourhood committees or mohalla samitis under the local
laws; the planning laws shall provide that
no decision in regard to a neighbourhood shall be taken without
consulting the neighbourhood committee.
<P>
<P>7  All stale institutions like development authorities and slum
boards dealing with civic matters shall be abolished
or placed under the municipalities managed by a directly elected mayor
or chairperson whose decisions will be subject
to scrutiny by the people in accordance with the provisions of the
planning laws.
<P>
<H3>
For and on behalf of the people of India
<P>
</H3>
<H2>
<I>PEOPLE FIRST</I>

</H2>
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=475>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=57>
</TABLE>
<HR>

<!-- Generation of PM publication page 3 -->

<TABLE BORDER=0 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=0 LANG=en DIR=LTR WIDTH="841"
COLS="3">
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=226>
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=548>
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=66>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=152>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1>
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=223 WIDTH=548 VALIGN="TOP">
<H2>
Governance through the Principle of Subsidiarity
</H2>
<P>
<P>Many countries are turning to the principle of subsidiarity. This
principle is the antithesis of the centrality of
governance. Under the principle of subsidiarity, the question is asked
what activities can be best performed by the local
government. Having settled that, the remaining activities are
transferred to the next higher level of governance, in our case the
state government. The same question is again asked and what cannot be
well handled, is transferred to the next higher level,
<P>the national government. Similar exercises are done in respect of few
and collection of taxes and allocation of receipts
- all taxes are considered local and devolved upwards.
<P>
<P>Conceptually, the people operating through the local government
contribute part of their tax collections to the
national government for taking care of their defence.
<P>
<P>A tiny country like Switzerland and many countries of the north work
on this principle.
<P>
<P>Gandhi's concept of villages as republic was a vision of a higher
order of subsidiarity.
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=223>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=219>
</TABLE>
<HR>

<!-- Generation of PM publication page 4 -->

<TABLE BORDER=0 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=0 LANG=en DIR=LTR WIDTH="841"
COLS="3">
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=226>
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=548>
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=66>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=67>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1>
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=460 WIDTH=548 VALIGN="TOP">
<H2>
Rooting out Irresponsible Governance - true power to the people
</H2>
<H3>
Abstract
</H3>
<P>
<P>The nation today is in trouble. Serious trouble. We daily see stories
of corruption, kickbacks, share market
scams, hawala payments and misuse of public funds. According to a former
prime minister's estimate, less than 20 per
cent funds actually reach the people.
<P>
<H2>
1      People and the Polity
</H2>
<P>
<P>After independence, we not only retained most of the institutions
established by our colonial  rulers for subserving
their imperial goals but also fortified them by adopting those modelled
on the pattern of the Soviet Union.
<P>
<P>Both colonialism and the Soviet Union have collapsed under the weight
of their own highly centralized,
bureaucratized, non-transparent and non-participatory practices of
governance and are no longer on the world map. Our
planning commission modelled on this Soviet concept, still exists. The
planning commission imposes numerous
centrally conceptualised schemes on local governments. En route, there
are heavy frictional losses, cut backs and false
billing, which explains why only 20 per cent reaches the people.
<P>
<P>The 73rd and 74th constitutional amendments mandate that planning
initiated by local governments shall
be consolidated by the district planning committees. Imposition of
centrally conceived schemes has therefore
become unconstitutional.
<P>
<P>Governments can indulge in irresponsible actions only if there is no
transparency and participation of people
indecision-making. A democracy in which people have no legal right to be
consulted on issues which affect their lives is
a marginalized one run by politicians and the bureaucracy. India is such
a marginalized democracy.
<P>
<P>The new planning laws needed to implement the constitutional
amendments should ensure participation of people
in decision-making through instruments such as public hearings and
consultations.
<P>
<P>For promoting responsible governance, the central thrust of our
polity should be to open decision-making to
participation by the people and assign authority to the lowest level of
government which is best equipped to handle it.
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=460>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=67>
</TABLE>
<HR>

<!-- Generation of PM publication page 5 -->

<TABLE BORDER=0 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=0 LANG=en DIR=LTR WIDTH="841"
COLS="3">
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=226>
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=548>
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=66>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=65>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1>
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=468 WIDTH=548 VALIGN="TOP">
<H2>
2      People and Planning
</H2>
<P>
<P>At present, planning is handled in a fragmented and non-participatory
manner. Planning departments are handling
socio-economic planning without any legal backing. Only city planning is
being handled under the planning laws. Neglect
of regional planning and marginalization of initiatives of the people
has led to the destruction of the rural resource base.
<P>
<P>Article 243ZD of the 74th constitutional amendment mandates a total
reversal and requires planning to be
1) participatory, initiated by the local governments and processed
upwards through the district planning committees
and (2) analytical, qualitative and spatial, covering socio-economic,
infrastructure and natural resources. Such
technical planning should be integrated under the environment
departments, merging the planning departments in them.
<P>
<P>In keeping with the spirit of the constitutional amendments, the
following key provisions should be made in
planning laws to bring about the desired transparency in governance and
participation of people in decision-making.
<P>
<H3>
Right to Information
</H3>
<P>
<P>An informed citizenship is a prerequisite for participatory
decision-making. The planning laws should have a chapter
on right to information providing for :
<H3>

</H3>
<P><B>Commission/or informed citizenship</B> : The planning laws should
provide that there shall be commissions for
informed citizenship in every slate to oversee that the rights of
citizens to information arc not violated.
<P>
<P><B>Access to information</B> : Public offices must be required by law
to provide information desired by citizens or give
their refusal in writing to enable citizens to seek redressal if the
refusal is unjustified.
<P>
<P><B>Public Hearings</B> : No project exceeding, 1000 sqm in area or
three floors in height, shall be approved without
public hearings at all the sites and villages affected by the project.
Full particulars of the project and its social
and environmental impact shall have to be presented at the public
hearings.
<P>
<P><B>Public Consultations</B> : The commission may issue guidelines for
organizing public consultations to elicit view of
various stake holders and others.
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=468>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=62>
</TABLE>
<HR>

<!-- Generation of PM publication page 6 -->

<TABLE BORDER=0 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=0 LANG=en DIR=LTR WIDTH="841"
COLS="3">
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=226>
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=558>
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=56>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=77>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1>
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=115 WIDTH=558 VALIGN="TOP">
<H3>
Participatory Councils
</H3>
<P>
<P>The planning laws should provide for participatory councils at state
and local levels on critical matters like natural
resource management, urban and rural poor, empowerment of women,
environment in business and citizenship and public lenders.
<P>
<P>Such councils shall not have any programme budget to prevent them
from themselves becoming centres of power.
<P>
<P>They shall function as conscience-keepers of development.
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=115>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=402>
</TABLE>
<HR>

<!-- Generation of PM publication page 7 -->

<TABLE BORDER=0 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=0 LANG=en DIR=LTR WIDTH="841"
COLS="3">
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=226>
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=548>
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=66>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=77>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1>
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=424 WIDTH=548 VALIGN="TOP">
<H2>
3      People and Settlements
</H2>
<P>
<P>People mistake local governments to be grassroots democracy.
Grassroots democracy is one in which all decisions
are taken by the elected representatives in the presence of all the
constituents. Even a gram panchayat with 1000 to
2000 constituents is loo large for effective participation in the
general assembly.
<P>
<P><B>Neighbourhood Committees</B> : Neighbourhood committees or mohalla
samities should be constituted under
the municipal and panchayat laws and clothed with adequate civic powers
for managing neighbourhood services.
No decision in regard to a neighbourhood shall be taken by any authority
without consulting the neighbourhood
committee. Such grassroots democracy will empower the people and also
make them responsible citizens.
<P>
<P><B>Responsible Right to Shelter</B> : Integrating the large number of
poor living in squatter settlements has become a
major concern of civic management. The concept of responsible right to
shelter conferring civic right with responsibility to
look after their neighbourhoods provides a legitimate solution.
<P>
<P><B>Non Voluntary Displacement</B> : Non voluntary displacement of
settlements constitutes a serious  violation of
human rights. The planning laws should provide for constitution of
resettlement tribunals by local governments which
oversee proper resettlement.
<P>
<P><B>Urban Development with Social Obligation</B> : Urban development
should hereafter be largely through the market
system with social obligation imposed under the planning laws. General
exemption  under the urban ceiling law may be given
if the developer provides serviced sites on specified percentage of the
land under development and makes it available
to the poor at the cost of development.
<P>
<P><B>Minimum House for the Poor</B> : On grounds of human dignity,
especially dignity of women, a minimum family
house should have two rooms. Current practices of building one room
family flats for the poor should be banned. Cluster
court urban duplex on 18 sqm serviced sites may be a preferred option.
Where flats are unavoidable, 14 feet height may
be provided to facilitate a loft as a second room.
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=424>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=92>
</TABLE>
<HR>

<!-- Generation of PM publication page 8 -->

<TABLE BORDER=0 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=0 LANG=en DIR=LTR WIDTH="841"
COLS="3">
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=226>
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=548>
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=66>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=78>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1>
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=144 WIDTH=548
VALIGN="TOP">
<P><B>Forested Homes as Green Belts
</B>: To contain unsustainable growth of cities, concepts like promoting
neighbourhoods
of forested homes as green belts around cities may be encouraged under
the planning laws.
<P>
<P><B>Rural Settlements</B> : Regeneration of the rural ecology through
sound watershed management  with
community involvement, holds the key for making rural settlements
sustainable. The gram panchayats assisted by mohalla
samitis should have total control of the programme.
<P>
<P><B>Direct Election of Head of Local
Government</B> : The heads of the municipalities and pant panchayats
should be
elected through direct election. This will attract quality leadership
which, under community surveillance, may provide
sound civic management.
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=144>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=372>
</TABLE>
<HR>

<!-- Generation of PM publication page 9 -->

<TABLE BORDER=0 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=0 LANG=en DIR=LTR WIDTH="841"
COLS="3">
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=226>
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=548>
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=66>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=85>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1>
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=374 WIDTH=548 VALIGN="TOP">
<H2>
4      People, Education and Health
</H2>
<P>
<P>Human development and not merely economic development should be the
goal of planning.
<P>Education  should be opened up to entrepreneurship and community
initiatives.
<P>
<H2>
4.1      Education
</H2>
<P>
<P><B>Literacy and School Education</B> : Student power should be used
for removing illiteracy. Rural schools may be
transferred to the gram panchayat and teachers made responsible to the
parents.
<P>
<P><B>Higher Education Initiatives</B> : Private trusts which provide
free infrastructure and companies which offer return
on investments, both should be encouraged to set up institutions of
higher education and universities. Such
institutions should be allowed to charge pre-notified fees which allow
for their development. The accreditation systems should
be strong to ensure adherence to proper academic standards and curbing
malpractices.
<P>
<P><B>Scholarships and Loans</B> : The state should provide subsidized
education to the needy, not through general
fee subsidization, but through targeted scholarships, assistantships and
student loans in both state run and
private institutions.
<P>
<P><B>Green Vacation</B> : The brown summer vacation, a legacy of the
British raj, should be replaced by the green vacation
in the festive winter months of tropical India so that the children and
the youth may imbibe nature and understand
its significance.
<P>
<P><B>Aptitude Tests</B> : Aptitude tests for admissions and employment
administered by private trusts may be encouraged.
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=374>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=135>
</TABLE>
<HR>

<!-- Generation of PM publication page 10 -->

<TABLE BORDER=0 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=0 LANG=en DIR=LTR WIDTH="841"
COLS="3">
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=226>
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=548>
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=66>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=79>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1>
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=194 WIDTH=548 VALIGN="TOP">
<H2>
4.2      Public Health
</H2>
<P>
<P><B>Water for Life</B> : Health has close linkages with water and
waste water management. Regeneration  of ground
water through watershed management with community involvement solves
most public health problems in rural areas.
<P>
<P><B>Planning with Nature</B> : Planning of settlements with nature
should be the key strategy. Sensitive sites like
water courses or nalas, flood zone and aquifer recharge zones should be
protected and reserved a; recreation.
<P>
<P><B>Local Waste Water Systems</B> : Local sewers along nalas and
treatment of waste within the civic system to
facilitate recharge of the ground water, should be an important
component of the civic design.
<P>
<P><B>Empowerment of Women</B> : The councils for empowerment of women
at the local level can play an important role
in promoting health and family welfare.
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=194>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=321>
</TABLE>
<HR>

<!-- Generation of PM publication page 11 -->

<TABLE BORDER=0 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=0 LANG=en DIR=LTR WIDTH="841"
COLS="3">
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=226>
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=558>
<TD COLSPAN=1 WIDTH=56>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=56>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1>
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=489 WIDTH=558 VALIGN="TOP">
<H2>
5      People and Administration
</H2>
<P>
<P><B>All India Services</B> : The all India services have become
unconstitutional as they are an imposition of the centre on
local governments.
<P>
<P><B>Open Selection for Top Appointment</B> : All top appointments in
government should be through open selection. These
will include secretaries, heads of departments and one level below,
divisional commissioners , district collectors,
municipal commissioners and chief executive officers of zilla
panchayats.
<P>
<P><B>Direct Appointments by Head of
Government</B> : In selected cases, the head of government can directly
appoint
eminent professionals, subject to appearance before a committee of the
legislature.
<P>
<P><B>Administration of Justice</B> : The number of judges and common
courts may be increased to meet the requirements of
a dynamic society. Special tribunals, especially the meaningless
administrative tribunals, should be abolished.
<P>
<P><B>Processing Administrative Reforms</B> : Recruitment to all India
services may be stayed for five years and
administrative reforms processed.
<P>
<P><B>Institutional Audit</B> : Commissions for institutional audit may
be set up in every stale to audit legitimacy of
existing institutions, scaling down administration, perquisites of
government servants and such other matters.
<P>
<P><B>Political Donations</B> : Ceiling on election expenses should be
removed and political parties exempted from disclosing
the source of donations. Donors should insist on receipts and if needed,
anonymous receipts. This will ensure legitimacy
in transactions.
<P>
<P><B>Jobs outside Government</B> : The concern of governments should be
to create jobs, not within but outside of government.
<P>
<P>
<H2>
6      General
</H2>
<P>
<H3>
True empowerment of the people through measures such as those indicated
above, will establish
legitimate process for resolving the current ills in the nation. It is
the assertion of PEOPLE FIRST that no other method
can provide a sustainable and lasting solution.

</H3>
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=489>
<TR VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT">
<TD COLSPAN=1 HEIGHT=49>
</TABLE>
</BODY>
</HTML>




--------------------------------------------------------------------------
This is the National Debate on System Reform.       debate@indiapolicy.org
Rules, Procedures, Archives:            http://www.indiapolicy.org/debate/
-------------------------------------------------------------------------