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India conducts Nuclear Tests....



 Hello Folks,

	What do we have to say abou this nuclear test conducted
by India Today.  Personally, I am very proud of it.  But, 
something that needs to be thought of, is the consequence
of such a test in the Internaltion arena.

	This will now definitely give Pakistan a "Reason" to 
promote its nuclear programme.  This may results in the UN/US
imposing Sanctions on India, and how would this affect the
Indian Economy.  What do we do about these type of situations.


Parag.

      

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               Top Stories
               Tuesday, May 12, 1998

 NEWS           ---------------------------------------------
 UPDATE
 SERVICE           * India explodes three nuclear devices at
                     Pokhran
 Top Stories       * U.S. disappointed, sanctions likely
 Editorial
 Front Page     ---------------------------------------------
 Tamil Nadu
 States         India explodes three nuclear devices at
 National       Pokhran
 International
 Business       Date: 12-05-1998 :: Pg: 01 :: Col: a
 Sports
 General        Cl: Front Page News
 Religion
                NEW DELHI, May 11.
 The Hindu
 Index          India today successfully conducted three
                underground nuclear tests in the Pokhran
                range in Rajasthan, 24 years after the nation
                had conducted the first such test.

                The dramatic announcement about the three
                tests, conducted at 1545 hours, was made by
                the Prime Minister, Mr. Atal Behari Vajpayee,
                at a hurriedly-convened press conference at
                his residence here.

                Mr. Vajpayee, who declined to answer any
                questions after reading out his 10-line
                statement, said the tests had been conducted
                with a ``fission device, a low-yield device
                and a thermonuclear device.''

                The measured yields from the tests ``are in
                line with the expected values,'' the Prime
                Minister said.Mr. Vajpayee said measurements
                had also confirmed that there was no release
                of radioactivity into the atmosphere.

                He said the three tests were contained
                explosions like the experiment conducted in
                May 1974.

                The Prime Minister warmly congratulated the
                scientists and engineers who carried out
                these successful tests.

                After reading out the statement, he said he
                would not be replying to any questions on the
                subject and added the official spokesman
                would brief the press later.

                Later an official statement said India
                remained committed to a speedy process of
                nuclear disarmament leading to total and
                global elimination of nuclear weapons.

                The statement said India would be prepared to
                consider being an adherent to some of the
                undertakings in the Comprehensive Test Ban
                Treaty but ``this cannot obviously be done in
                a vacuum.''

                ``We would like to reaffirm categoricaly that
                we will continue to exercise the most
                stringent control on the export of sensitive
                technologies, equipment and commodities -
                specialy those related to weapons of mass
                destruction,'' the statement said.

                The Government would like to reiterate its
                support to efforts to realise the goal of a
                truly comprehensive international arrangement
                which would prohibit underground nuclear
                testing of all weapons as well as related
                experiments described as sub- critical or
                hydronuclear, it said.The statement was read
                out by Mr. Brajesh Mishra, Principal
                Secretary to the Prime Minister, at a special
                briefing here.

                The statement said these tests had
                established that India had proven capability
                for a weaponised nuclear programme.

                They also provided a valuable database for
                design of nuclear weapons of different yields
                for different applications and different
                delivery systems, it said.

                ``These tests provide reassurance to the
                people of the country that their national
                security interests are paramount and will be
                promoted and protected. Succeeding
                generations of Indians would also rest
                assured that contemporary technologies
                associated with nuclear option have been
                passed on to them in this 50th year of
                Independence,'' the statement said.

                It said the tests were expected to carry
                Indian scientists towards a sound computer
                simulation capability which might be
                supported by sub-critical experiments, if
                considered necessary.

                India, however, assured its neighbours that
                it would be its sincere endeavour to
                intensify and diversify relations of truthful
                cooperation for mutual benefit that had
                existed and deepened over a long period.

                For India, as for others the prime need was
                for peaceful cooperation and economic
                development, it said. The statement also said
                India would be happy to participate in the
                negotiations for the conclusion of a fissile
                material cut-off treaty in the Geneva-based
                Conference on Disarmament.

                `Not against U.S.'

                Mr. Mishra clarified that the tests were not
                directed against the United States which had
                announced that sanctions might be imposed.

                ``I hope the U.S would understand that the
                tests were meant for the security of the
                people of India,'' he said.

                Asked what steps the Government had taken to
                face the sanctions, Mr. Mishra said their
                information was that the U.S had stated that
                it was disappointed and they were in touch
                with the Indian Government for a full
                clarification.

                ``We did not inform any Government about our
                intentions to conduct the tests,'' he said in
                reply to a question.

                Replying to another question, he said
                Government had merely carried out what it had
                promised in the national agenda that India
                would have a credible nuclear deterrent.

                Mr. Mishra said he did not think that this
                would affect the relations between India and
                the U.S.

                Asked whether India could now be known as a
                nuclear power, Mr. Mishra said, ``The message
                is clear that people have a nuclear
                deterrent.''

                The Prime Minister had informed the
                President, Mr. K. R. Narayanan, late last
                night about the decision to carry out the
                tests .

                Mr. Vajpayee, who called on the President
                after his return from a state visit to Peru
                and Brazil, apprised him of the decision.

                The Vice-President, Mr. Krishan Kant, who is
                in Cairo to attend the G-15 summit, was also
                informed about the decision to carry out the
                tests.

                Among others who were informed about the
                decision were the Home Minister, Mr. L. K.
                Advani, the Defence Minister, Mr. George
                Fernandes, the three service chiefs and the
                Rajasthan Chief Minister, Mr. Bhairon Singh
                Shekhawat.

                The tests, carried out at a depth of 100
                metres in the desert, coincided with the
                Hindu date of Buddha Poornima when the first
                test was conducted in the same area 24 years
                ago.

                The code name for the last test conducted in
                1974 was ''Buddha is smiling''.

                Defence experts said the thermonuclear
                explosion had placed India next only to the
                U.S. and Russia in terms of nuclear
                capability, adding that the country was
                ``left with no other option.''The
                international reaction to this would
                invariably be condemnatory in nature,
                demanding sanctions and imposition of export
                controls, they said.

                ``India was finally compelled to join the
                nuclear club because the international
                community legitimised nuclear weapons when
                they indefinitely extended the Nuclear Non-
                Proliferation Treaty (NPT),'' the former
                Director of the Institute for Defence Studies
                and Analyses (IDSA), Dr. K. Subrahmanyam,
                said.

                ``It will invariably compel the international
                community, especially the five nuclear
                powers, to come to terms that elimination of
                nuclear weapons by all is a priority and
                agreements like NPT and Comprehensive Test
                Ban Treaty (CTBT) have no relevance,'' Dr.
                Sreedhar of IDSA said.

                India had conducted the first Underground
                test during Indira Gandhi's regime on May 18,
                1974, in the Pokhran area.

                India, which has been under constant pressure
                from the Western powers, particularly the
                U.S., has always maintained that its nuclear
                programme was for peaceful purposes.

                It refused to sign the NPT, saying that it
                should be global, non- discriminatory and
                comprehensive.

                The BJP-led coalition Government in its
                national agenda for governance had pledged to
                re-evaluate the nuclear policy and exercise
                the option to induct nuclear weapons.

                Meanwhile, British scientists said in London
                the tests measured 4.7 on the Richter scale -
                the equivalent of a light earthquake.

                The British Geological Survey said its
                equipmenmt had picked up tremors from the
                tests.

                ``We calculate a measurement of about 4.7 on
                the Richter scale at 1013 GMT (1543 IST) near
                the India-Pakistan border,'' a spokesman at
                the British Geological Survey said.

                PM's statement

                The following is the text of the announcement
                made by the Prime Minister, Mr. A. B.
                Vajpayee today on the nuclear tests:

                Today at 1545 hrs. India conducted three
                underground nuclear tests in the Pokhran
                range. The tests conducted today were with a
                fission device, a low yield device and a
                thermonuclear device. The measured yields are
                in line with expected values. Measurements
                have also confirmed that there was no release
                of radioactivity into the atmosphere. These
                were contained explosions like the experiment
                conducted in May 1974. I warmly congratulate
                the scientists and engineers who have carried
                out these successful tests.

                | Top of Top Stories | The Hindu Index |

                U.S. disappointed, sanctions likely

                Date: 12-05-1998 :: Pg: 01 :: Col: e

                Cl: Front Page News

                By Sridhar Krishnaswami

                WASHINGTON, May 11.

                The United States today said it was ``deeply
                disappointed'' by India's nuclear tests and
                belived that they ran counter to an
                international campaign to outlaw such
                experiments.

                ``The United States is deeply disappointed by
                the decision of the Government of India to
                conduct three nuclear tests. This runs
                counter to the efforts the international
                community is making to promulgate a
                comprehensive ban on such testing,'' the
                White House spokesman, Mr. Michael McCurry
                said.

                Mr. McCurry said Washington would take up the
                matter with New Delhi.`` We will continue to
                spare no effort in encouraging countries to
                both promulgate and ratify the Comprehensive
                Test Ban Treaty. If anything, these tests
                underscore the importance of that
                international regime,'' Mr. McCurry said,
                adding the U.S. would contact Pakistan and
                urge restraint on the sub-continent.

                Mr. McCurry's statement on the subject is the
                first of the reactions from the U.S. to the
                announcement of the Prime Minister of the
                three underground nuclear explosions carried
                out at Pokhran earlier in the day.

                Asked for comment, a State Department
                official told TheHinduthat the administration
                was considering what was to be done and the
                first task on hand was to go about confirming
                the tests. But at least one agency report had
                it that the administration might impose
                sweeping sanctions against India.

                The fuller reaction of the administration
                will unfold in the next few days with the
                first comprehensive statements coming from
                the afternoon briefings at the White House
                and at the State Department later during the
                day. But the initial impression is that the
                administration has not really much of a
                choice on the subject of sanctions which are
                automatic and come into effect almost
                immediately.

                Under American domestic laws, sanctions will
                not be imposed if the President determines
                and certifies in writing to the Committee on
                Foreign Relations of the Senate and to the
                Committee on Foreign Affairs in the House of
                Representatives that the application of such
                sanctions would have a serious and adverse
                effect on the vital interests of the U.S.

                The view here is that the American sanctions
                law as applicable under the circumstances is
                sweeping and there is no distinction that is
                made on the type of detonation that has been
                undertaken. The sanctions referred to under
                the laws are as follows: first, the U.S. will
                terminate assistance to the country under
                question under the Foreign Assistance Act of
                1961 with the exception of humanitarian,food
                or other agricultural products assistance.

                Second, the U.S. shall terminate sales of any
                defence articles, defence services or design
                and construction services as also terminate
                the licences for export for any item on the
                munitions List; third, there will be the
                termination of all foreign military
                financing; fourth, the U.S. will deny credit,
                credit guarantees or other financial
                assistance by any department or agency of the
                U.S. Government. Of course, there are
                exceptions in this category as it pertains,
                for instance, to humanitarian assistance or
                to the Congressional oversight of
                intelligence activities.

                Fifth, in accordance with the International
                Financial Institutions Act, the U.S. shall
                oppose the extension of any loan,financial or
                technical assistance by any international
                financial institution that would include the
                World Bank and the International Monetary
                Fund. And sixth, it is put across that the
                U.S. government will prohibit any of its
                banks from making any loan or credits to the
                country in question except for that of
                purchasing food or agricultural commodities.

                ``This is a gigantic mistake on the part of
                India,'' said Mr. Gary Milhollin of the
                Wisconsin Project. In a conversation with
                TheHindu, Mr. Milhollin argued that the
                conduct of nuclear tests by India would not
                only cut off or sever the flow of high- tech
                from the U.S., but also put India in a
                special category, or the ``unsavoury'' list
                in world opinion and all this without any
                benefit to India's security.

                PTI, AFP report:

                China's official news agency Xinhua reported
                the nuclear tests, but without any comment.
                No official reaction could be obtained from
                China since the news reached Beijing well
                after office hours.

                In the Bangladesh capital Dhaka, a Foreign
                Minister spokesman said Bangladesh was
                following the developments. | Top of Top
                Stories | The Hindu Index |

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