Word Version

 

China bulletin Sept 98: DOING BUSINESS WITH CHINA

I. BUSINESS CLIMATE

 

Establishing a Business

 

Before establishing a business in China, it is very important to become familiar with applicable investment laws. The Chinese government offers many incentives for investors. Incentives might include tax reductions and holidays, parti al or complete waivers of export and import fees, cheap land rents, sales rights within China, and repatriation of after-tax profits.

 

In China, good relationship and friendship are essential to business. Chinese commerce is largely influenced by personal relationships established and maintained by the interaction. Without good relationship or friendship, business m ight be a little more difficult.

 

Consumer Market

 

Following are the eight features of the urban Chinese consumer market.

 

First, specialized stores and super markets account for one third to one fourth of the total number of stores. Chain stores and super markets have been witnessing a rapid development under encouragement from official government policie s.

 

Second, there has been a growth of the medium consumption stratum. Between 1992 and 1996, the proportion of medium grade consumers grew from 35% to 65% in major cities. However, owing to the stagnation of income of workers in state-ow ned enterprises, there has been a slow down in the graduation of low grade consumers to the medium consumption stratum. The white collared group and middle school students set the trend of consumption in these cities.

 

Third, the relative importance of television, radio, newspapers and magazines in urban areas as factors influencing urban consumption are 2.3:1.1:1.7:1. More than 70% of the urban Chinese are under the influence of advertisement, when shopping and an equal proportion are influenced by television advertisements.

 

Fourth, the rate of increase of incomes of urban residents has slowed down, but the gap between high and low incomes has further increased. Savings in people’s incomes have also increased. The high rate of saving restrains consumer ex penditures.

 

Fifth, there is a vigorous demand for more and new medicines, medical care and services. The growing number of aged people and the single child family has given rise to a growing demand for care taking services for the aged.

 

Sixth, public service has grown relatively slowly in the urban consumer market in recent years. The exceptions have been telecommunications and transport, which have developed rather quickly in their market orientation. The commercial ization of social security services-care of the aged, medical care, unemployment relief -has started.

 

Seventh, urban people still show a high confidence in commodities imported from abroad and those produced by Sino-Foreign Joint Ventures. These products enjoy larger market shares and better prestige than products manufactured domestic ally. Chinese manufactured products maintain their influence mainly amongst medium and low grade consumers.

 

Eight, in recent years, expenditures related to children have seen the fastest increase amongst urban households. A sum equivalent to about one sixth of average income of urban households was used for bringing up children.

 

 

  1. TAX SYSTEM IN CHINA

 

China’s tax system has undergone a series of reforms. The taxation of foreign enterprises doing business in China has been governed since July 1, 1991, by the Unified Tax Law and its implementing rules.

 

The country’s tax system undoubtedly will require continuing adjustment and refinement. Although tax court cases ad administration rulings are virtually non-existent, an abundance of legislation now exists in China, even though some la ws and regulations are more strictly enforced than others.

 

The 1993 tax reform is meant to alleviate some of this uncertainty, and the country is now committed to adopting a more US-style tax system. However, investors who find it difficult to deal with the present ambiguities in the tax laws will continue to experience frustration in dealing with the tax administration of their China operations.

 

 

Turnover Tax System

 

China’s turnover tax system recently has undergone major revision. The former turnover tax system consisted of the Consolidated Industrial and Commercial Tax(CICT), Product Tax, Value Added Tax(VAT), and the Business Tax.

 

The newly enacted turnover tax reform unified the turnover tax system so that a single system applies to both domestic and foreign enterprises. At the same time, the previous VAT legislation was repealed and replaced by a new VAT legis lation. The new legislation came into effect on January 1, 1994.

The VAT and business tax are mutually exclusive. The consumption tax is imposed only on certain commodities, so that it would not apply to a transaction subject to the business tax. But, a sale could be subject to both the VAT and con sumption tax. All items, unless specifically exempted, are subject to either the VAT or the business tax.

 

Foreign investment enterprises and foreign enterprises that previously paid the CICT will pay either a VAT or business tax depending on the mature of their business and the type of products involved.

 

Value Added Tax

 

The former VAT system was repealed and replaced by a new VAT regime. The new VAT legislation is modeled after the VAT systems in the European Union member countries and is a multistage tax that is levied at each stage of production and distribution.

 

The VAT applies to production, distribution, and retailing activities. In addition, all businesses acting as importers-whether domestic or foreign-that are doing business in China are subject to the VAT.

 

Customs duties also may apply to imports. Farming and agricultural activities and the transfer of immovable fixed assets, however, are not subject to VAT. Service businesses generally are subject to the business tax.

 

VAT Rates

Food and plant oil

13%

Running water, natural gas, and methane

13%

Books, newspapers, and magazines

13%

Agricultural chemicals

13%

Sale or import of al other types of goods

17%

Processing, repair, and installations services

17%

The VAT rate for exports is zero.

 

The VAT is calculated on the basis of a percentage of the sales price. It is collected on each transfer of taxable goods and services. For instance, when a company purchases goods subject to the VAT, it will pay the purchase prices pl us the VAT to the seller. When the goods are resold at a higher price, the seller will receive the sales price plus the VAT.

 

Only the difference between the VAT on the purchase price and the VAT on the sales price is remitted to the government. Therefore, the amount of tax payable is the excess of the output VAT over the input VAT in the same period. Output VAT is the tax collected by a seller from the buyer. Input VAT is the tax payable by a buyer of goods or services.

 

Exports are zero-rated. Therefore, the taxpayer will not be required to collect the VAT on the taxpayer’s exports. However, the taxpayer will be entitled to claim an input tax credit for the VAT paid on input purchases.

 

Nevertheless, the State Administration of Taxation issued a circular in late 1994 to disallow certain enterprises a refund for VAT paid on domestic purchases. For enterprises established before 1994, VAT paid on domestic purchases may not be refunded at the time of export. Furthermore, in light of the sharp increase of export refunds, coupled with instances of counterfeit VAT invoices, China State Council has since issued two other circulars, effective July 1, 1995, and January 1, 199 6, respectively, which further reduced the rates of export refunds as follows:

 

Categories of Products

Before

July/1/1995

Old refund Rate

From

July/1/1995

Refund Rate

From

Jan/1/1996

Refund Rate

Agricultural products and coal

10%

3%

3%

Agricultural products used for production of industrial goods; cereals and edible vegetable oils; tap water; heaters; air-conditioning, various natural gas, various publications, fertilizer, pesticides, farm machinery, etc.

 

 

13%

 

 

10%

 

 

6%

Other products

17%

14%

9%

 

Accounting and collection of the VAT is carried out through a system of VAT invoices. Sales values must be calculated in RMB. Each seller of goods or services is required to provide a VAT invoice to each buyer for each sale, but if th e buyer is not a VAT registered taxpayer, an ordinary invoice should be used.

 

The amount of input VAT deductible is the amount shown on VAT invoices obtained from the sellers. If no invoice for VAT can be provided, them no VAT would be deductible.

 

The Business Tax

 

A business tax applies to enterprises in the services, transport, and other non-production industries, as well as the transfer of immovable assets. Retailing and wholesaling enterprises will not be subject to the business tax but will be subject to the VAT. The business tax rates range from 3 to 20% depending on the category of business.

 

Business Tax Rates

Posts and telecommunications

3%

Banking and insurance

5%

Services (agency, hotel, travel, and advertising)

5%

Assignment of intangible assets (land-use rights, patents, copyrights, and goodwill)

5%

Sales of immovable property

5%

Cultural and sports activities

3%

 

 

New Consumption Tax

 

A separate tax, in addition to the VAT, applies to certain "luxury" goods and items deemed socially undesirable, such as cigarettes, alcohol, cosmetics, skin-care products, jewelry, gasoline, diesel fuel, and motor cars. The tax is computed based on the sales revenues of the taxable goods, and rates range from 3% to 45%.

 

The consumption tax is applied to the first sale of a finished product into the commercial chain. This generally occurs when the manufacturer sells the products to the retailer. Imported goods are subject to the tax, payable upon entr y into China. Exported gods, however, are not subject to the tax.

 

Consumption Tax Rates

Tobacco

30-45%

Alcoholic beverages

10-25%

Cosmetics

30%

Jewelry

10%

Autos

3-8%

Motorcycles

10%

 

Stamp Tax

 

Activities involving purchase and sale, processing, contracting, leasing, transportation, storage, loan lending, property insurance, technology contracts, property transfer vouchers, business account books and licences are subject to st amp tax. The minimum rate of stamp tax is 0.005% and the maximum is 0.1%.

 

 

Tax Incentives

 

Various tax exemptions and reductions are available in China for foreign investment enterprises. These benefits reflect Chinese economic and political priorities and have developed and been subjected to repeated amendments during the y ears of economic reform.

 

The eligibility for tax incentives depend on both the geographic location of a project and the industry in which the enterprise is engaged. Generally, production-oriented, export-intensive, high and new technology and knowledge-intensi ve projects are encouraged, as are projects in designated industries, such as energy, transportation and communication. These types of projects receive additional benefits if they are located in designated geographical priority regions.

 

A tax exemption generally applies for production-oriented enterprises during the first two to three profit-making years, with an additional 50% tax reduction in the following three to five (or possibly six to ten) profit-making year.

 

Local governments have been granted broad discretionary authority to enact legislation to encourage foreign investment. Because of this broad discretion, implementation of the various provisions vary for each locality. Foreign enterpr ises can only rely on the most concrete provisions when determining what tax rules will apply.

 

Despite the policy of encouraging foreign investment, China’s central government is tightening its tax administration. Local governments are prohibited from granting tax incentives outside the scope of the national tax laws.

 

Selected Tax Incentives Available in the SEZs and ETDZs

 

Zone or Region

General

Enterprise

Tax Rate

Other Tax Incentive

Available for Certain Activities

 

Special Economic Zones:

Shenzhen Shantou

Zhuhai Xiamen

Hainan

 

15%

Full and partial holidays of 3-10 years with a resulting tax of 0-7.5%.

A 15%-30% tax reduction may be available thereafter for 10 year.

Economic Development

& Technology

Development Zones

 

15%

Full and partial tax holiday of 5-10 years.

A 15-30% tax reduction may be available thereafter for 10 years.

Old Urban Districts

15-24%

Full and partial tax holiday of 5 years may be available.

Pudong New Area

15%

Full and partial tax holiday of 10 years may be available.

Coastal Open

Economic Zones

15-24%

Full and partial tax holiday of 5 years may be available.

High & New

Technology Industrial Development Zones

 

15%

 

Full tax holiday of 2 years.

Special Investment

Area in Beijing

15%

Full and partial tax holiday of 6 years.

 

 

 

II. Ways Of Investment

 

Comparison of Forms of Investment

 

 

Equity Joint Venture (EJV)

Wholly Foreign-owned Enterprise (WFOE)

Cooperative Joint Venture (CJV)

Legal Form

A legal entity with limited liability.

A legal entity with limited liability.

May or may not be a legal entity.

 

 

Minimum Registered Capital

$3 million or less, 70% of total investment.

$3-10 million, 50% of total investment or $2.1 million,

whichever is higher.

$10-30 million, 40% of total investment or $5 million,

whichever is higher.

More than $30 million, 33.3% of total investment or $12 million,

whichever is higher.

Foreign Partner’s Equity

 

Cannot be less than 25%.

 

100% foreign equity.

No minimum foreign equity.

Profits

and

Losses

Profits and losses shared in the proportion of investment contributed by each partner.

 

Not applicable.

Profits and losses shared according to the provisions of the contract.

 

 

 

Management

Two-tiered system of management. The board of directors is the highest authority and the managerial staff is responsible for daily management.

Management system not subject to governmental interference so long as the WFOE operates within its approved activities.

CJVs with the capacity of legal entity typically adopt the same form of management as EJVs. Many CJVs are managed by a joint management office.

 

 

Reserves

Must create after-tax funds including Reserve Funds, Employee Bonus and Welfare Funds, and Enterprise Development Funds.

Must create two after-tax funds; Reserve Funds, and Employee Bonus and Welfare Funds.

Those formed as legal entities are expected to create the three after-tax funds.

 

 

 

Life

EJVs in some industries must have definite terms, whereas others are free to decide whether or not to fix a term. When the terms are fixed, the term may be extended subject to the agreement of the partners and government approval.

Although there is no limitation on the term of WFOEs, WFOEs must have a specific term approved by the authorities. The terms can be extended.

CJVs with the capacity of legal entity are subject to the same restrictions as those applicable to EJVs, while those without the capacity of legal entity typically have shorter terms.

Tax Rates

Unified Tax (33%), or lower if tax incentives apply.

 

 

Transfers of Technology

 

The transfer of technology through the sale of equipment and the licensing of proprietary technology by foreign investors to Chinese entities has become a common practice.

 

Royalties typically are paid in a lump-sum by installments or as a certain percentage of product sales. Licensing arrangements generally will provide for the foreign licenser to provide ancillary services during the term of the contrac t such as installation, technical assistance, training, and consulting.

 

Although many of these arrangements can involve a long-term presence in China and could give rise to tax treatment on an establishment basis, the Chinese tax authorities historically have dealt with such transactions through a 20% withh olding tax on gross income. Most double taxation treaties limit the withholding tax to 10% on the gross royalty payment.

 

In order to encourage technology transfers, the Ministry of Finance promulgated the Provisional Regulations Regarding the Reduction and Exemption of Income Tax on Fees for the Use of Proprietary Technology. These regulations, which cam e into effect on January 1, 1983, provide for special preferential treatment of technology transfers. The preferential treatment provided in the Technology Tax Regulations was later adopted by the Unified Tax Law.

 

Under the Technology Tax Regulations, withholding tax is levied on fees received by a foreign investor in connection with the transfer of proprietary technology. This concept, which is considerably broader than the concept of royalties used in the tax law itself, includes fees for blueprints, documentation, technical service, and personnel training related to the technology transferred.

 

If the technology, which is the subject of the transfer, falls within specified categories the income may be subject to a reduced withholding tax rate of 10%. Moreover, a total exemption may be granted if such technology is also advanc ed and is provided on preferential terms.

 

If a foreign enterprise maintains a permanent establishment in China and technology transfer services are attributable to the permanent establishment, China withholding tax would not apply. In such cases, the income is allocated to the taxable income of the permanent establishment.

 

A technology or know-how transfer is commonly not attributed to a permanent establishment. If a withholding tax is levied in the country of the source, double taxation treaties generally provide for a tax credit in the residence countr y of the enterprise for withholding tax paid.

 

The types of technology which are eligible for the reductions and exemptions include the following:

 

  1. Proprietary technology for the development of production in agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and animal husbandry, including among these proprietary technology provided for the improvement of soil or grasslands, the exploitation of barren hills, and the full use of natural conditions;

 

Proprietary technology provided for new varieties of animals and plants and for the production of high-effectiveness, low-toxicity agricultural pesticides;

 

Proprietary technology provided for implementing scientific production management in agriculture, forestry, fisheries, animal husbandry and plants, and for the production of high-effectiveness, low-toxicity agricultural pesticides;

 

Proprietary technology provided for implementing scientific production management in agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and animal husbandry for maintaining ecological balance, and for strengthening the ability to resist natural disaster s;

 

  1. Proprietary technology provided to the Chinese for conducting scientific research or scientific experiments by China’s academies of science, institutes of higher learning, and other scientific research units, or for conducting scien tific research in cooperation with China’s scientific research units;

 

  1. Proprietary technology for China’s key construction projects in energy resource exploitation, and communications and transport development;

 

 

 

  1. Proprietary technology for energy conservation and the prevention and cure of environmental pollution;

 

  1. Proprietary technology for China’s development of the following important fields:

 

 

It should be noted that the reductions and exemptions referred to above are not automatically granted but are subject to the approval of the Chinese tax authorities. With respect to tax reductions, approval may be granted by the local t ax bureaus upon application by the taxpayer and confirmation by the Chinese party.

 

Tax exemptions are granted only with the approval of the Ministry of Finance. Provisions in contracts providing for tax exemptions and reductions which do not have the approval of the relevant Chinese tax authorities are invalid.

 

When a project of service constitutes a PE, income tax and business taxes will be imposed. In the absence of a tax treaty, many Chinese tax bureaus will interpret the rules in such a way that transactions which provide for the provision of technical services and assistance to Chinese entities but do not involve the transfer of proprietary technology may, in certain circumstances, be exempt from withholding tax.

 

The types of projects eligible for this favorable treatment include the following:

 

  1. Service fees received for the provision of consulting services for the reform of existing production technology, the improvement of operations management and choice of technology, feasibility analyses of investment projects and choi ce-of-design proposals, and bid proposals made by China’s projects or enterprises;

 

  1. Technology instruction fees, personnel training fees, and fees for books, blueprints, and documentation sold at seminars on technical or business knowledge relating to enterprise management and on production technology applications conducted for China’s enterprises, educational and scientific research institutes, etc.;

 

  1. Technical assistance fees received for the provision of technical assistance with respect to the existing equipment or products of China’s enterprises according to technical targets stipulated by the Chinese side for performance, ef ficiency, quality, reliability, and durability, and for undertaking new designs, resting, or trial production with respect to segments or parts that require improvement so as to attain technical targets stipulated in the contact;

 

  1. Technical service fees, design fees, and fees for related blueprints and documentation received for technical instruction, civil engineering design, technical process design, quality inspection, and data analysis provided for constr uction sites and for the manufacture, installation, or assembly of equipment.

 

Where the provision of technical services and assistance of the types set forth above require the foreign party to set up an establishment in China, the transaction may be treated as a contracted project. In this event, the foreign con tractor may be subject to the Unified Income Tax Laws.

 

Technology transfer projects and licensing carried out in China’s special investment areas are eligible for further incentives and preferential treatment. In general, such transactions are eligible for an automatic reduction of the wit hholding tax rate to 10%.

 

 

INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS / CONFERENCES

TO BE HELD IN CHINA

 

China Insurance and Reinsurance

27-28 October 1998, China World Hotel, Beijing.

 

Strategic Human Resource Management in China

27-28 October 1998, China World Hotel, Beijing.

 

2nd Annual China Mining Conference

29-30 October 1998, China World Hotel, Beijing.

 

International Conference on Measurement, Automation and Control Technology

7-9 March 1999, Shanghai Mart.

 

The 8th China International Medical Equipment & Facilities Exhibition

10-13 May 1999, China International Exhibition Center, Beijing.

 

The 8th China International Electronics & Telecommunication Exhibition

20-24 May 1999, China International Exhibition Center, Beijing.

 

China International Exhibition for Internet Products, Technology & Services

16-19 June 1999, China World Trade Center, Beijing.

 

China Elecom ’99

June 28 - July 1, 1999, International Exhibition Center, Shanghai.

 

International Medi-Tech China ’99

6-9 Oct. 1999, Shanghai Exhibition Center, Shanghai.

 

China International Water Industry Exhibition ’99

20-22 Oct. 1999, Shanghai Mart.

 

 

INDIA – CHINA BILATERAL TRADE

(JAN – JUNE 1998)

 

Bilateral trade and economic cooperation between India and China has grown steadily during the first six months of this year. The Chinese customs statistics, for June 1998 indicate that bilateral trade has reached US$1.013 billion an in crease of 14.2% over the similar period of 1997.

 

Indian exports to China increased by 12.2 % to reach US$543.662 million over the figures for first six months of 1997 while Indian imports from China reached US$470.199 an increase of 16.6 % over the figures of last year. China’s world wide imports grew only at 2.2% and exports by 7.6 percent only. During this period India maintained a trade surplus of US$73.463 million. India has maintained its position as top 20th trade partner of China. India is also the largest trade partner in Sout h Asia.

 

During the first six months of 1998, India has increased its share of China’s international trade to 0.667% as against 0.616 in first six months of 1997. In terms of exports, India increased its market share to 0.843% as against 0.767% in first six months of 1997 while China’s export to India has increased to 0.54% of her exports world – wide from 0.498 during the corresponding period.

 

 

Main Features Of India’s Exports

 

1) The category of Prepared Foodstuffs has maintained the high growth path. During the first six months of 1998, Indian export reached US$1180.804 million, an increase of 11% from the figure of 1997. The increase of 11% is signif icant as China’s imports of oil cake and other solid residues of soya-bean have decreased by 26.2% during the period and India has become largest supplier of oil cake and other solid residues of soya-bean to China.

 

2) Export of mineral products have reached US$142.201 million, an increase of 10% over 129.631 million in the first six months of 1997. Of this, Iron and chrome ore exports increased by 12% to US$131.008 million as against US$116 .710 million in the corresponding period of 1997.

 

Statistics indicate that China’s imports of iron ore have increased by 7% during this period and China has imported 24.47 million tons Iron ore during the period, an increase of 9.1 % over the corresponding figures for 1997. China prima rily imports from Australia, Brazil, India and South Africa through annual purchases, foreign contracts, joint ventures and privately owned mines.

 

3) Textiles and Textile Articles at US$ 89.251 million a decrease of 10%, over the first six months of 1997. Cotton and cotton yarn atUS$78.665 million, have suffered a drop of 15% over 1997. This drop is to be seen in the contex t of general decrease in China’s imports by 31.4%.

 

4) Chemicals: Exports of chemicals in first half of 1998 reached US$50.194 million, an increase of 70% over the figure of US$29.460 million during the corresponding period last year. The export of inorganic chemicals amounted to US$ 28.08 million an increase of 189% over the last years figures whereas organic chemicals export to China increased by 95% to reach US$16.075.

 

5) Animal and Vegetable oils: During the first six months of the year, export of these products has increased by 327% to reach US$20.008 million (mainly castor oil). The demand for this product in China is due to use of castor oi l in manufacture of chemicals. Nearly 99% of Chinese demand is met from India.

 

6) The export of raw hides and skins, leather etc., have increased by 11% to reach US$14.56 million during the first six months of 1998. Hong Kong, Republic of Korea, Thailand and Italy are the main suppliers to China.

 

7) The export of Articles of Stone, Plaster, Cement have shown an increase of 466% to reach US$ 9.207 million during the first six months of 1998. The item under this section is mainly cut marble/granite.

 

8) Live animals/animal products export amounted to US$8.833 million during the first half of 1998 an increase of 14% over the corresponding period of 1997. Marine products exports netted US48.829 million an increase of 18% over t he last year. In general, China’s imports of seafoods had increased by 14.9%. In terms of variety of imports, foreign products currently imported to China include frozen cuttlefish, ribbon fish, herring, salmon, pomfret, pollock, squid, fin sole, yellow c roaker, mackerel and frozen or live lobster and king crab.

 

9) The export of Base Metals and articles of Base Metal has declined substantially from US$16.177 million during the first half of 1997 to US$6.106 million during 1998. The decline is 62% over the last year.

 

Iron and Steel had declined steeply from US$14.8 million in 1997, to US$4.01 million in 1998, a decrease of 73%.

 

There is an increase of 74% in exports of precious stones and precious metals which reached US$5.89 million during the first half of 1998.

 

 

 

 

 

 

INDIA’S EXPORT TO CHINA ( JAN - JULY 1998 )

 

Unit : Thousand US$

 

ITEM

JAN

FEB

MAR

APRIL

MAY

JUNE

JULY

TOTAL

TOTAL

56,799

109,237

138,009

91,838

77,522

70,543

63,862

607,524

Fish

2,721

1,525

1,198

695

1,435

1,257

915

9,745

Living Plant, Stem, Root

12

1

--

21

9

75

--

117

Edible Fruits and Nuts

2

--

--

--

--

--

--

2

Coffee, Tea and Spices

7

--

--

15

10

184

9

225

Oil Seeds, Medical Plants, Forages

226

666

623

598

319

326

181

2,939

Plant Liquid

45

99

96

168

304

321

479

1,511

Other Plant Products

33

29

20

48

31

62

27

253

Fat, Grease of Animal & Plant

3,327

4,029

2,542

7,029

2,027

1,001

3,049

23,067

Dregs of Food Industry, Compound Feed

13,908

54,209

60,075

26,567

12,417

13,582

8,125

188,884

Salt, Sulphur, Soil, Lime and Cement

1,531

1,317

1,565

1,793

1,149

1,473

1,433

10,263

Ore Sand, Ash and Dregs

14,911

15,996

27,153

21,168

24,873

26,907

24,039

155,047

Mineral Fuel, Mineral Oil and Pitch etc.

16

--

--

16

2,332

--

--

2,364

Compound Chemical of Valuable Metal

2,313

11,187

14,132

209

122

116

135

28,215

Organic Chemical

1,238

1,201

3,145

3,432

3,977

3,078

1,924

17,999

Pharmaceuticals

--

165

166

312

156

36

16

851

Daub, Ink

44

171

301

247

288

181

165

1,397

Perfume, Cosmetics

337

--

133

425

221

270

166

1,553

Plastic Products

316

81

240

460

247

85

783

2,212

Rubber Products

24

8

14

8

13

18

35

119

Leather

1,146

944

1,246

6,085

2,451

2,687

2,020

16,580

Wood and Wood Products, Charcoal

297

1

8

74

34

47

26

489

Paper and Paper Board, Pulp

40

7

18

122

513

111

90

900

ITEM

JAN

FEB

MAR

APRIL

MAY

JUNE

JULY

TOTAL

Printing Products

16

6

6

6

10

4

9

57

Cotton

10,098

11,451

15,739

12,914

15,195

13,269

12,074

90,740

Woven Textile

2

1

1

--

1

8

24

37

Shoes

1

26

--

9

--

1

--

37

Artificial Flower

394

824

349

1,185

109

727

1,409

4,997

Mineral Material Products

860

1,757

2,164

1,920

1,014

153

795

8,664

Ceramic Products

--

319

10

--

--

55

--

384

Glass Products

282

53

306

197

47

70

189

1,143

Steel

561

743

2,055

196

353

102

317

4,327

Steel Products

45

39

5

4

1,845

0

903

2,842

Copper and its Products

9

--

6

3

--

3

2

25

Aluminum and its Products

0

--

5

32

10

10

--

58

Video Equipment and Parts

275

256

384

785

624

206

510

3,039

Automobiles and Parts

16

21

67

55

34

93

49

334

Medical Equipment and Parts

104

224

322

351

166

267

135

1,569

Music Instruments and Parts

1

3

50

4

16

1

29

103

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHINA’S EXPORT TO INDIA ( JAN - JULY 1998 )

 

Unit : Thousand US$

 

ITEM

JAN

FEB

MAR

APRIL

MAY

JUNE

JULY

TOTAL

TOTAL

61,426

63,941

69,186

101,584

102,364

71,469

84,186

554,560

Fish

95

--

--

25

--

--

--

120

Edible Vegetable, Stem and Root

57

250

1,237

39

337

418

--

2,339

Edible Fruits and Nuts

--

--

190

253

--

52

--

495

Coffee, Tea and Spices

541

177

352

141

338

303

201

2,053

Oil Seeds, Medical Plants and Forages

5

--

34

--

11

--

7

57

Plant Liquid

36

--

--

15

--

--

--

51

Fat, Grease of Animals & Plants

42

26

33

23

21

29

18

200

Sugar

--

32

--

--

--

35

--

67

Vegetables and Fruits

--

4

5

--

--

--

--

9

Dregs of Food Industry, Compound Feed

23

23

12

39

45

20

139

301

Salt, Sulphur, Soil, Lime and Cement

1,423

69

1,582

747

2,056

73

2,942

8,893

Ore Sand, Ash and Dregs

333

--

93

--

6

--

--

432

Mineral Fuel, Mineral Oil, Pitch

9,895

12,455

12,871

10,077

4,332

11,243

4,803

65,596

Compound Chemical of Valuable Metal

1,930

3,744

5,280

5,958

5,962

3,651

6,472

33,243

Organic Chemical

12,065

14,510

15,167

17,546

22,434

21,114

22,066

124,110

Pharmaceuticals

230

330

411

522

1,342

366

930

4,131

Fertilizers

--

--

9

--

--

--

4

13

Daub, Ink etc.

1,069

1,178

1,428

1,610

2,061

1,316

1,669

10,332

Perfume, Cosmetics

79

117

21

126

97

59

86

585

Lubricating Oil

11

8

0

3

7

0

1

110

Explosive, Fire Works

11

--

--

--

--

--

--

11

Plastic Products

3,741

3,187

2,282

2,989

1,120

251

1,617

15,190

ITEM

JAN

FEB

MAR

APRIL

MAY

JUNE

JULY

TOTAL

Rubber Products

104

40

81

69

116

50

88

547

Leather

255

40

159

322

433

261

558

2,027

Leather Products, Cases

72

55

344

172

431

118

398

1,589

Fur, Manmade Fur and its Products

--

145

0

56

44

131

23

399

Wood, Wood Product, Charcoal

0

--

--

--

1

--

39

40

Baskets, Weaving Material Products

5

--

--

--

-

--

45

50

Paper and Paper Board, Pulp

3,600

470

1,530

327

2,066

1

2,992

10,985

Printing Products

0

--

--

445

1

--

--

446

Cotton

623

369

138

774

451

1,247

437

4,039

Woven Textile

48

31

110

38

86

14

4

330

Shoes etc.

562

209

235

389

248

302

306

2,257

Umbrellas, Hand sticks

177

133

459

290

467

435

266

2,228

Mineral Material Products

49

13

247

0

5

224

125

665

Ceramic Products

229

89

162

253

158

172

103

1,166

Glass Products

177

464

368

380

404

467

440

2,699

Diamonds, Valuable Metal Products

40

56

84

94

104

68

66

512

Steel

2,205

848

533

2,953

3,363

1,571

6,299

17,772

Steel Products

219

4,239

239

1,587

3,479

3,553

922

14,237

Copper and its Products

10

54

91

72

96

48

26

396

Aluminum and its Products

--

0

330

1

21

760

55

1,167

Video Equipment and Parts

7,036

9,442

8,365

6,442

4,951

3,701

9,972

49,921

Automobiles and Parts

106

217

544

463

125

340

261

2,056

Medical Equipment and Parts

438

1,013

760

751

778

699

677

5,117

Watch, Clock and Parts

1,014

1,128

997

1,701

1,571

1,010

1,401

8,834

Music Instruments and Parts

35

12

16

7

6

56

11

142

Furniture Bedroom Equipment, etc.

102

41

58

58

98

67

176

600

Toys

555

265

393

844

990

510

348

4,012